AP Was There: Pre-Title IX ‘dark ages’ for female athetes

By 1974, faculties and universities throughout the United States ended up starting off to evaluate the total effects of Title IX, the landmark 1972 law that known as for equitable therapy of gentlemen and girls in systems getting federal funding.

The ripple results were being significantly felt in faculty athletics, wherever men’s sports experienced extensive received the lion’s share of attention, funding and assist. There was crystal clear resistance amongst athletic administrators to tackle the topic of women’s sports and The Affiliated Press set together a five-component series hunting into the details.

Under is one particular story from that series as it appeared in the Press and Solar-Bulletin of Binghamton, New York, on Nov. 13, 1974.


EDITOR’S Be aware — It will arrive as no shock that girls athletes at the nation’s faculties do not get the exact remedy as their male counterparts. But they may well soon simply because a regulation identified as Title IX claims universities have to offer equal athletic prospects for equally sexes. Below is a report on what it was like currently being a woman athlete prior to Title IX.


AP Sports activities Author

The common athletic director in the usual faculty athletic department is not a gals-hater. On his desk, following to all the trophies, is a family portrait demonstrating his wife, and it’s possible a daughter or two.

Outside the house his carpeted office, there’s another smiling woman who pours him coffee, opens his mail and varieties his letters. He’ll say he’s all for ladies.

But, in many scenarios, his athletic spending plan will not mirror it.

“I never realize what goes on in the heads of those people athletic administrators,” says Dan Bakinowski, who gratuitously coached Boston University’s women’s crew staff to two countrywide championships past summer time. “They experience the women of all ages athletes are heading to go absent. If they assume that, then they’re only fooling on their own.”

“Women’s athletics is not a trend. There are just much too numerous of them out there. They have so considerably enthusiasm and it is not heading to quit. The Ads experienced superior sensible up.”

And if the colleges want to proceed obtaining their federal checks for guidance in various places, some athletic departments are likely to have to transform their emphasis since the lengthy arm of the regulation is on the way to support women’s sporting activities.

With Title IX of the 1972 Training Act, which prohibits discrimination in any college program, about to be thoroughly enforced, chances are opening up for women’s athletics on quite a few campuses, prompting Anne Findlay Chamberlain, a to start with-year scholarship receiver at Penn Point out, to say:

“It employed to be that we experienced to have on skirts and nylons to a video game. But that total period has adjusted now and we never have to be embarrassed to be feminine athletes any more, even nevertheless I by no means was.”

The previous is not so encouraging to women. Those people days had been the darkish ages of women’s sporting activities – an era that still exists on some campuses nowadays – when the men experienced the whole pie and the girls were lucky if they got some crumbs.

The Boston College women’s crew workforce gained two national championships this previous summer months, and they did it with no a person cent from that school’s athletic department, which gave men’s crew $35,000 and two entire-time coaches previous calendar year.

“We practiced at six in the early morning so we wouldn’t get in the way of the men’s team, and also simply because our volunteer mentor (Bakinowski) labored from 9 to 5,” recalls staff member Betsy Hochberg.

“To compete in meets,” Hochberg claims, “we experienced to borrow boats from other faculties. We fund-raised with bake gross sales, raffles and car or truck washes. We even resorted to a rowing marathon. We set up a swimming pool in entrance of the university student union and rowed in two-hour shifts, 24 hours a working day for just one complete week. Persons came by and threw change in the pool.

“It was like begging. But the funds experienced to be lifted somehow. BU wasn’t going to give it to us … crew is demanding sufficient below the greatest disorders, but training at six in the early morning with flashlights, when ice is forming on the oarlocks and you just can’t see two ft in entrance of you, nicely, it’s almost unbearable.”

Pretty much. With all people problems, the team still managed to quality for the nationwide championships in Oakland, Calif., resulting in a new established of challenges – transportation and lodging for them and their boats.

They borrowed a boat from Radcliffe and, ironically, ended up beating Radcliffe in the finals. They paid their personal way to California, a price of $1,000 for every girl. And they rented the boat trailer owned by the BU men’s crew workforce for five cents a mile, a price of some $300 for the 6,000-mile spherical journey.

“If we experienced been gentlemen,” says Hochberg, “the athletic department would not have been able to do ample issues for us.”

Quite a few athletic departments have recognized the existence of ladies, and, of program, athletics but not the two collectively.

At Ohio State, ladies received $40,000 previous year out of whopping $6 million athletic spending plan. This year, the women’s ante has been lifted to $83,000.

“No a lot more four women to a home. No far more automobiles without having heaters half-freezing our women,” states Phyllis Bailey, in charge of Ohio State’s 11 intercollegiate sporting activities for girls.” We drove two tricky days to a Big 10 swim fulfill in Minneapolis final 12 months and two hard times back. The men’s crew flew. We only didn’t have the funds.”

At Texas A&M, gals have 10 athletics and a overall spending budget of $200.

Most educational facilities have operated women’s athletics “on a various philosophy than men’s programs,” states John E. Shay, vice president of scholar affairs at the College of Rhode Island.

“Men’s sports have ful
l-time coaches in most main sporting activities or are freed from regular educating obligations to undertake coaching,” Shay says. “Women have coached the women’s sporting activities as an overload, in addition to their other responsibilities on campus.”

Title IX is developed to ultimately produce a person similar athletics philosophy for both equally sexes but it will not erase the poor memories.

Gwen Gregory, the HEW (Division of Wellness, Training and Welfare) formal presently operating on Title IX’s last enforcement polices, tells the pursuing story:

“A women’s observe staff in Illinois had a meet scheduled a person 12 months in progress and invited colleges from all around the place. The 7 days prior to the satisfy, the men’s observe mentor termed up and stated he was sorry but the guys wished some extra follow the day of the fulfill. The fulfill was canceled.”

Nancy Scannel, a reporter for the Washington Publish, explained that at Texas A&M, Dennis Fosdick, coach of the women’s swimming workforce, paid out $2,200 of his own money to get his crew to the countrywide championships, though the 7 days prior to the university paid for the men’s team to fly to their nationwide championships.

A businessman whose daughter competes on the basketball, volleyball and monitor groups at Maryland has submitted a Title IX complaint in opposition to the university. Carl Croydor states the school’s men’s basketball group traveled by airplane to the University of Virginia – a three-hour bus journey. But “in the top of the electricity disaster final December, the university experienced the women’s basketball workforce drive them selves to Rochester – an eight-hour trip – to compete in the Eastern Regionals.

“The women did not know if they would be equipped to obtain plenty of gas to get again,” Croydor stated.

Bakinowski claims he stopped finding up at 5:30 a.m. to mentor the BU crew simply because “the college did not do a point for us … the athletic division just has a bunch of distorted values. They just do not see the injustice when adult men get absolutely free rides and ladies have to go out and promote coffee.”


AP Corporate Archives contributed to this report.


For extra on Title IX’s affect, browse AP’s entire report: https://apnews.com/hub/title-ix Online video timeline: https://www.youtube.com/enjoy?v=NdgNI6BZpw0